Having the potential to replace almost half of the conventional vehicles by about 2035, and having electric vehicles, in which many governments have invested heavily, may meet certain conditions and requirements.
Furthermore, these legal implications of owning an electric vehicle covering electric vehicle safety standards or electric vehicle emissions standards are introduced in many regions, and citizens are encouraged to make changes in this direction. Let’s first examine what kind of federation and state-oriented electric vehicle regulations are applied.
Understanding Federal & State Electric Vehicle Regulations
Many countries and states around the world are preparing electric vehicle regulations regarding electric vehicle emissions standards and electric vehicle safety standards. Starting with an example, mainly Canada and the United States have a policy only implemented at a state or a local level—such as the California electric vehicle regulations—on the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) mandate regulation while China maintains this regulation at the national level.
On the other hand, Canada and India show national support for subsidies in industry policies. Similarly, the New Energy Vehicles (NEV) subsidies are organized and supported by China between 2020 and 2022 as a policy set at the national level.
In addition to such electric vehicle regulations, governments take steps like the Chinese example mentioned above by providing direct cash support to manufacturers so that the production costs of this type of vehicle can be reduced to almost the same level as other types of vehicles by providing incentives and support to reduce cost differences during the production stages of the electric vehicles.
Similar to these electric vehicle regulations, states and federations provide support from the production of EVs to the sales stages and also support the free use of services such as highways, ferries, and parking lots. In certain countries, direct or indirect tax exemption provided to the consumer may also include some of the electric vehicle regulations introduced in the general context.
When we go into more detail, with the support of up to $10,000 provided to the consumer through the subsidy electric vehicle regulations in China, the purchase tax has also been abolished, and in this context, China has been among the countries closely followed in the production of EVs. Moreover, it aims to maximize the Chinese product technology, which encourages free use of the service areas mentioned above.
Continuing with examples from another country, Norway aims to use the applicability factor most effectively by including electric vehicle regulations in city planning, completely abolishing the EV purchase tax from consumers, and providing large amounts of support. Moreover, it also provided incentives for EV owners by exempting tax (in certain areas), toll, and ferry fees.
On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, in addition to the possibility of providing free parking and transportation from different lanes in the traffic of very low-emission vehicles to support and encourage the production of EVs, an economic government expenditure of approximately $10,000 has been allocated in a 5-year plan within the framework of electric vehicle regulations.
Electric Vehicle Emissions Standards & Certification
EVs, one of the leading examples of developing technology and a revolutionary that will reshape the concept of transportation, have certain disadvantages that should be evaluated in the context of emissions as well as the advantages they provide. So, states also are ready to prepare some electric vehicle regulations under the electric vehicle emissions standards concept.
Accordingly, when the construction and production phases are mentioned before the use of vehicles, it can be seen that EVs’ production phase causes more emissions than conventional vehicles. The main reason for this is that the raw materials used in the production of the batteries cause at least 40% of emissions of carbon monoxide.
Supportively, it may affect the emission rate depending on the number of fossil fuels used during the charging of EVs. Namely, the amount of coal used during charging can cause more air pollution than conventional ones.
Because of all these, countries must lay their foundations and make new electric vehicle regulations in an environmentally friendly way and develop certain electric vehicle emissions standards under the framework of production and use.
To illustrate, in the US, solutions such as natural gas, wind, or solar power plants as energy sources with lower emissions appear to be added to the electric vehicle regulations under the electric vehicle emissions standards framework during the transition phase. Thus, it is possible to use EVs, whose main motivation is to be better for the environment, in a very healthy way without harming nature.
Namely, there are 11 different electric vehicle emission standards called bins, which range from 1—the cleanest vehicle— to 11—the most polluting. When examined in a general context, a bin 1 vehicle is equivalent to the zero-emission vehicle standards. And supportively, in the world, many regions consider electric vehicle emissions standards by giving priority to bin 1 vehicles in such vehicle productions. This also concerns the electric vehicle safety standards issue.
Electric Vehicle Safety Standards & Recalls
Along with the electric vehicle emissions standards, the safety issue of EVs operating based on electricity and battery power is addressed with the international standard ISO 6469. In this regard, there are certain electric vehicle safety standards.
Accordingly, battery packs, which cause EVs such as electric scooters, bikes, and cars, to be heavier than conventional cars, increase the mass eventually, and extend the braking distance by reducing the range and indirectly decreasing the rate of injury to passengers in accidents.
On the other hand, they may not meet the safety standards of pedestrians with visual impairments or hearing problems, as they will produce less noise, unlike conventional vehicles. In this regard, the US Congress and the Japanese government have brought forward the electric vehicle regulations of the minimum noise level of EVs and have standardized pedestrian safety under the framework of electric vehicle safety standards.
Another electric vehicle safety standards issue is the current rate from the vehicle. Typical voltage values in EVs should be as follows;
- 48-120V- Cars & Small Vans
- 96-240V- Large Vans
- 300-600V -Buses
Depending on these values, it is also necessary to pay attention to the increases in the values that you can see as variability in the characteristics of the vehicle. As perhaps the most important factor in terms of electric vehicle safety standards, the safety of the battery is very critical. Electric vehicle regulations under certain standards have been taken into account due to electrical, chemical, mechanical, and explosive potential hazards that the battery may create in the vehicle.
For example, in the electrical context, when more than one battery pack is used, it must be properly placed to prevent fatal accidents such as additional fuse links and explosions in the vehicle, so that the battery does not cause a malfunction.
In the context of preventing instability in the vehicle, the place of the batteries’ weights on the vehicle board, especially lead-acid batteries, should be ensured, and they should be produced at a quality and level in this direction. In addition, to prevent explosion hazards in the EVs, the hydrogen concentration should never exceed 0,8%, and the battery design and location should be considered accordingly.
Electric Vehicle Tax Credits & Incentives
In line with the negativities caused by environmental harm, many regulations have been introduced, especially to reduce emissions through EVs for better energy use. Accordingly, the most important of these are the tax credits. For example, federal income tax deductions of up to $7,500 were offered to consumers on all newly purchased EVs in the US after 2010. It is also stated that the amount of this deduction depends on both the income tax and the battery size of the vehicle.
Moreover, according to the electric vehicle regulations, if the income tax debt is lower than the incentive, all debt will be completely cleared and no payment will be made for the remaining amount. States that try to reduce the cost difference at the production stage are trying to equalize the price of EVs with other vehicles at the same level and introduce electric vehicle regulations regarding this.
On the other hand, in France, the opportunity to provide a discount of up to €10,000 in a case such as an EV swap is presented to the consumer. Moreover, replacing 50% of French state vehicle fleets is among the electric vehicle regulations. Similarly, in Germany, consumers who want to buy EVs are granted an exemption from certain taxes. Half of these taxes and incentives are provided by the state to consumers, while the other half is provided by the vehicle manufacturer.
Electric Vehicle Insurance Requirements
It is a very important issue to ensure the EVs, which are very costly in terms of both production and purchase. Concerning this, insurance for EVs can be more costly, unlike conventional ones. The main reason for this is that the production materials of EVs are not easily produced and are provided in a costly manner. Considering that the vehicle itself has gone through a costly construction phase, insurance can be quite costly.
Considering this situation, there are main requirements of EV fuses in general. These are namely;
- Bump, crash, roll over, and roll
- Vehicle burning,
- Damages that occur as a result of malicious acts of third parties
In addition to these, the following guarantees can be counted;
- Seizure and theft of the vehicle keys,
- Increased liability insurance,
- Strike, malicious acts, or terrorism,
- Damages caused by incorrect charging,
- Harms caused by animals,
- Changing the locking system
- Legal protection,
- Flood, landslide, lightning, hail, storm, earthquake,
- Personal accident
Electric Vehicle Charging Station Permitting and Zoning
Charging stations, which can be called “gas stations” of EVs, can be described as stops where vehicles provide their energy sources. As charging stations can operate by plugging them into a household outlet, this process, unfortunately, prolongs the vehicle’s battery to adequately and effectively store energy. As a solution to this, as EV charging stations regulate the mains electricity and transmit it to the battery, energy can be stored more efficiently and quickly.
In addition, with the rapidly spreading EV technology, it is now possible to find charging stations in areas such as many fuel oil and shopping malls. The cost of these charging units or stations is not limited to a certain number as it varies according to the features and the number of vehicles to be charged.
On the other hand, setting up an individual and corporate charging station can be quite costly. In addition to this, charging stations can be installed by people with special competence, and as mentioned before, the driver can’t set up a charging station by himself. Accordingly, when talking about EV charging pricing, home charging is the most economical yet time-consuming method. For example, it can determine the full charge time of an EV with a capacity of 50kW as approximately 7 hours.
On the other hand, public charging stations are level 2 charging stations that can be used for free. Although some of these are paid depending on the station founders, this pricing may vary according to the provider and region. Some stations take kWh, while others charge per minute. Another type of charging station is the DC fast charging station, although the most expensive station type can fill 80% of the vehicle’s battery in an average of 30 to 60 minutes.
Ultimately, having changed and influenced the transportation understanding of the future to a large extent, EVs are subject to certain regulations by each state, and they are progressing with tax reductions and regulations that encourage people to replace conventional vehicles.
On the other hand, electric vehicle emissions standards that need to be taken into account in this regard are also quite essential. Similarly, when it comes to the electric vehicle safety standards that are set forth, it can also leave a question mark in the minds of what kind of requirements it applies to insure this type of vehicle.