It is thought that electric vehicles, namely EVs, will replace most conventional vehicles by 2035, as an opportunity that today’s technology has brought to the forefront. This is progressing in the context of innovations, and even plans are being made. The question of “how is electric vehicle charging rate measured and what factors affect it” is becoming increasingly important as more states put forth legal regulations on electric vehicles.
Under the framework of many states that put forward regulations, the issue of electric vehicle charging rates also comes to the fore as a highly debated and curious subject. Namely, the charging stations, where EVs directly meet their energy sources, act as gas stations. Understanding the calculation of electric vehicle charging rates, which can range from 3 to 4 miles per kWh usage, is key in understanding the costs of owning an EV.
For example, with 1,200-mile driving per month, the result will be equivalent to approximately 400 kWh usage. Accordingly, when this value is calculated as 15 cents per kWh when considered in US standards, the monthly calculation shows that a cost of $60 should be allocated for EV charging.
- Ampere (A): The current intensity per unit time of the electric charge passing over a conductor cross-section. Electronic equipment may be damaged in case of overloading ampere the vehicles.
- KiloWatt (kW): It is a unit of electrical energy, and it is calculated by dividing the energy by the hour. The kW value calculates the one-second meter movement of the vehicle.
- KiloWatt-hours (kWh): It refers to the amount of energy produced or consumed per hour. Accordingly, it can be calculated how much kWh of electrical energy the electrical devices and vehicles are being produced by taking into account the time they work and their power. In EVs, 3 to 4 miles of driving per kWh is generally achieved.
- Volt (V): To measure the volt, which provides the measurement of the voltage as the potential difference between two points of a conductor, a power of 1 watt must be generated from the 1-ampere electrical current between the two points just mentioned.
- Charging Connector: It is a cable, socket, or apparatus that physically connects to the electric vehicle and provides electricity transmission and charging efficiency.
- Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE): An independently operated and managed part of the charging unit determining the charging efficiency. Charging equipment energizes only one electric vehicle at a time and may consist of one or several different types of charging connectors.
- EV Charger Unit: It is a physically indivisible infrastructure element that provides the necessary energy for supplying the electric vehicle charging rate and the charging efficiency.
- Charging Network: It is an infrastructure system established and managed by the operator to charge electric vehicles and increase the charging efficiency at more than one point.
- Time of Use (TOU): It is a metering for measuring and charging utility the energy consumption based on when the energy is used. It varies by region and utility.
The Top 5 Factors That Affect Electric Vehicle Charging Speed
Certain factors affect the EV charging rate as well as the charging speed. The 5 most prominent of them can be listed as follows;
1. Charging Station Level
As the slowest charging station type of the three levels, the full charge time of the vehicle can take place in 7 to 29 hours in Level 1 station. On the other hand, Level 2 charging stations provide a much faster charging speed than Level 1. The complete charging of the vehicle can take place in a period of approximately 2 to 10 hours, depending on the model.
Level 3 (DC) charging stations, on the other hand, are the fastest filling and supplying charging efficiency station type because they transmit energy to the vehicle with direct current. In this way, a process of at least 30 minutes may be required for the battery energy to be completely reached the electric vehicle charging rate.
2. Vehicle Battery Status
The variety and condition of the vehicle’s battery, such as capacity or size, are also among the factors affecting electric vehicle charging rate and speed. For example, batteries with larger capacities take longer to charge. Similarly, the maximum electric vehicle charging rate of the battery also affects the speed of the charging process.
On the other hand, battery deterioration not only affects the charging process but also can show a significant change in the economical and effective use of the power source. Batteries that consume more energy for the vehicle are filled faster than necessary and also run out faster than they should.
3. State of Charge (SoC)
Similar to the previous factor, the state of charging is among the factors that affect the charging speed and electric vehicle charging rate. That is, the filling of an empty battery takes longer than the half-filled state.
4. Loads in Use
As another factor, the occupancy of the loads during the charging of the vehicle also affects the charging speed. If there is a heavy vehicle charging situation, the energy loading of your vehicle will be slower than normal due to the density of the infrastructure of the network.
5. Environmental Conditions
The weather conditions in which the EV charging process takes place are among the factors that indirectly affect the speed of the process and the electric vehicle charging rate. Namely, due to the lower efficiency of EVs in cold weather, the charging time will increase as well as the driving distance will decrease.
Maximizing Your Electric Vehicle’s Charging Rate: Tips & Strategies
Charge Your EV in Warmer Conditions
The charging process, which varies depending on the coldness and temperature of the aforementioned environmental conditions, shows that the vehicle’s battery takes longer to charge under cold conditions. Accordingly, to maximize your vehicle’s battery in the most efficient and short-term way and determine the electric vehicle charging rate greatly, you need to provide it with warmer conditions.
The charging process, which will be carried out in hot weather during the day rather than at night, is more effective and allows you to fill the battery at the highest level. In cases such as overheating or excessive coldness, the maximization of the battery is affected, and the electric vehicle charging rates become inconsistent.
Charging Station Levels
You can use the 3 different charging station levels just mentioned, depending on the environment and conditions, to maximize your battery and observe the electric vehicle charging rate. For example, we said that Level 3 (DC) charging stations perform faster charging in the vehicle. Although it is more costly than other station types, it is possible to fill in a short time with this type of station.
On the other hand, it is possible to charge an EV battery in 5 to 6 hours with Level 2, which is a little more cost-effective.
Imagine connecting your car just like you connect an electronic device to a charger or an outlet. If it is not placed in the charging socket properly and if the charging socket in the vehicle is damaged, it will not be possible to provide sufficient and effective charge acquisition and EV charging rate, and major deterioration will occur in the vehicle. Therefore, make sure that the charging connector is firmly seated in the charging socket.
Don’t Leave Your EV Plugged-in All The Time
Being in the charging station for a long time or frequently causes the battery to be overcharged and broken due to excessive current as well as the inconsistency of the EV charging rate, even if the charging is not completed. Do not leave your vehicle constantly and frequently charged in order not to shorten the life of the battery and the vehicle, and not to slow down the performance of the vehicle.
Comparing the Charging Rates of Different Electric Vehicle Models
Here are the best 10 EV models with EV charging rate comparison;
- Porsche Taycan: The average time required for Taycan’s battery charge rate to reach from 5% to 80% is 23 minutes.
- Tesla Model 3: Even at the slowest station, it is possible to charge the Tesla Model 3 from 0% to 100% in 8 hours and 15 minutes.
- Hyundai Ioniq 5: Depending on the station difference, Hyundai provides a 70% increase in battery charging in 18 minutes, the fastest.
- Audi e-Tron GT: Along with a DC charging station generating 270kW of power, the Audi e-Tron GT can be quickly charged from 5% to 80% in about 23 minutes. Additionally, it can offer a range of 100 km in just over 5 minutes.
- Honda e: Similarly, the Honda e model can provide an 80% battery charge in 30 minutes at fast charging stations, and this time can vary between 6 and 8 hours at home sockets.
- BMX iX: With a charging capacity of up to 150kW, it is possible to provide a filling performance of up to 80% in 30 minutes at fast filling stations.
- Skoda Enyaq iV: In this model, which provides a full charge within 27 hours at the latest with the Level 1 charging station, the 80% battery charge time provided by Level 3 can be reduced to 30 minutes.
- Tesla Model Y: With an AC charging station, also known as Level 1 or Level 2 stations, the maximum power of Tesla Model Y corresponds to 11 kW. Accordingly, it is possible to provide full filling from 0 to 100 in an average of 8 hours and 15 minutes.
- Ford Mustang Mach-E: Ford Mustang Mach-E, which provides a full charge in 10 hours, also has the option of a connected charge station. The expansion of the charging network with an additional 1000 charging stations and an additional 5000 charging sockets also gives the vehicle model many advantages in terms of charging.
- Renault Megane E-Tech: Renault can carry a voltage of 22 kW at most and can provide a full battery charge between 7 and 10 hours. Additionally, 80% charging can be achieved in 3 hours.
The Role of Charging Stations in Electric Vehicle Charging Rate
Slow Charging-Level 1 (AC)
Level 1 charging stations are generally the type of charging stations where vehicle charging is done via household sockets using from 120-volt to 230-volt. The full filling process of the vehicle can take quite a long time in this type of charging station, which operates more slowly as a household type and process. Accordingly, it is possible to talk about an average of 29 hours.
These types of charging stations are very common as they can be used at work, in the home, or through outlets in public places.
Fast Charging-Level 2 (AC)
On the other hand, fast stations are more costly but faster-charging stations than Level 1, and slower but cheaper-charging stations than Level 3, also work based on AC charging. In this type of charging station, charging an EV with a 50kWh battery can take 8 hours. This type of charging station can usually be found in public areas such as parking lots, shopping malls, petrol stations, or resting facilities. They need sockets that transfer 240V to 400V energy.
Rapid Charging-Level 3 (DC)
Level 3 stations, which provide the fastest charging among stations, can charge EVs within minutes because they charge using direct current. They are, however, more costly than the other two.
Eventually, one of the main points to know about EV charging rate basics is that 3 to 4 miles of driving can be achieved per kWh usage. Depending on this, you can consider the charging rates and cost, and make your calculations.
On the other hand, many important factors such as charging stations, vehicle battery conditions, loads in use, and environmental factors can affect the EV battery charging process. This leads to the question of “how is electric vehicle charging rate measured and what factors affect it?”